IoT vs IoE vs M2M | Difference between IoT,IoE and M2M

The page compares IoT vs IoE vs M2M and mentions difference between IoT(Internet of Things),IoE(Internet of Everything) and M2M w.r.t. definition,meaning and examples. IoT means Internet of Things,IoE means Internet of Everything and M2M means Machine to Machine Communication.

IoE network has been developed with base as IoT, hence both are similar as far as basic framework and protocols are concerned. Some features are added to provide more intelligence to the devices in the network in IoE, this is the only difference between the two.

What is IoT-Internet of Things definition or meaning

Internet of Things definition: • It is network of things or devices connected together.
• The IoT devices are equipped with software, hardware electronics, Sensors (or actuators) and network interface.
• These components help IoT device to establish connection, communicate using connection, collect data and share or exchange data with other devices on the network.

IoT (Internet of Things) utilizes existing wired and wireless technologies and add framework on top of these to create network of its own. Hence IoT can not independently exist. It has to rely on other technologies.

Following three major components are used in all the IoT devices:
➨Software module: The framework and firmware is part of the IoT Software module. It makes it possible to collect data, store the data, process it, manipulate it if required. All the decisions based on commands received from other IoT device are taken by this module.
➨Hardware module: It houses electronics part. This part makes physical things/objects responsive to instructions as well as provide them capabilities to handle data operations.
➨Sensors (or actuators): There are different types of sensors which are incorporated in the IoT devices as per applications. The common IoT sensors include optical sensor, temperature and humidity sensor, proximity sensor, touch sensor etc.
➨Communication network Interface: This part consists of protocol layers which makes two objects communicate directly or using wired/wireless communication networks.

Internet of Things Examples

Following are the applications or examples of Internet of Things:
• Aircraft network: Air traffic network consisting of air paths and aircraft connections with ground stations.
• The iBeacon based network which provides information of gym goers to their friends automatically.
• The IoT concept is being utilized in farming to know level of moisture. Based on this timely decisions of irrigation are taken by the farmers to have better results.
• IoT based sensors are planted on animals to prevent the theft.
• Used in the parks to provide more facilities to the visitors with the help of RFID equipped wrist tags.
• All the connected devices in the Home

What is M2M | M2M definition or meaning

M2M communication enables bi-directional transfer of data between man & machine or between machine and management systems. M2M is short form of 'machine to machine'. It can also be referred by other names such as 'mobile to machine' or 'machine to mobile'.

In other words, M2M communication enables machines to be networked such that data can be freely exchanged among these assets. In this technology for communication, human interaction or intervention is not needed.

There are two ways it works as mentioned below.
• Uplink in order to collect product and usage information
• Downlink to transmit instructions/software updates or to monitor equipments remotely

As shown in the figure, in M2M, data from machine can be uploaded automatically to computer system without the need of human being. The M2M system also allows remote monitoring and maintenance of machines i.e. vehicles here.

M2M device consists of sensor or tag and communication module.

M2M Examples

Following are the few examples using M2M concept. In these manufacturing and utility industries, machines connect with IT network for predefined applications.
• SCADA system where in systems are remotely monitored.
• Closed loop plant floor automation systems

Although SCADA is proprietary system for the company, M2M communication enables communication with any public wireless networks and access methods such as ethernet for data communication.

Other M2M examples or applications are as follows:
• Security• Tracking and Tracing• Payment• Health • Remote maintenance and control• Metering• manufacturing• facility management etc.

What is IoE-Internet of Everything

The IoE network is built on existing IoT infrastructure. IoE adds intelligence to the IoT network which allows convergence, visibility as well as orchestration across previous heterogeneous system elements. This make individual separate systems into cohesive one.

IoE Example: Air traffic network including paths, connections, aeroplanes, air ticket machines, customers, staff and environmental conditions etc.

IoT vs IoE vs M2M

As shown in the figure, IoE(Internet of Everything) consists of following subsystems:
• Internet of Digital (IoD)
• Internet of Humans (IoH)
• Internet of Things (IoT)
• M2M (Machine to Machine) Communication- It is part of IoT as shown, But there are few difference between IoT and M2M as mentioned in the table below.

Similarities and difference between IoT and IoE

Let us understand difference between IoT and IoE.

IoE network has been developed with base as IoT, hence both are similar as far as basic framework and protocols are concerned. Some features are added to provide more intelligence to the devices in the network in IoE, this is the only difference between the two. As shown in the figure IoT is part of IoE.

➨From above discussion we can say that IoE = IoD + IoH + IoT + M2M

Similarities and difference between IoT and M2M

Following table summarizes similarities and difference between IoT and M2M.

Specifications IoT M2M
Architecture Hybrid of distributed and centralized Centralized
Topology Star, Mesh, Cluster Tree Star
Network tier Hierarchical Flat
Data rate 10 to 300 Kbps 100 to 1000 Kbps
Security Strong Minimal to strong
Range 100m to 20 Km 100m to 5 Km
End to End latency Higher Lower
Downstream/Upstream symmetry ratio 50/50 80/20
Technology IoT platforms Cellular
Battery Power 2 to 15 years 1 Day
Flow direction Some traffic to data center and other resides at network edge only All traffic to data centre
Vendors several to many One

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