BGA Ball Grid Array Basics and types-PBGA,CPBGA,CBGA,TBGA

This article covers Ball Grid Array (BGA) basics and types of BGA(Ball Grid Array) e.g. PBGA(Plastic Ball Grid Array), CPBGA(Cavity Plastic Ball Grid Array), CBGA(Ceramic Ball Grid Array) and TBGA(Tape Ball Grid Array). It also mentions advantages, disadvantages and applications of BGA.

Definition: Ball Grid Array is a type of surface mount packaging used to integrate Integrated Circuits (ICs). It is used to permanently mount the devices such as microprocessors. BGA can provide more connections/pins than dual in line or flat packages. The whole bottom surface of the BGA device can be used instead of just the perimeter.

BGA-Ball Grid Array

It provides better connections for devices used at high speed applications. The soldering of BGA requires precise control and is usually carried out using automated processes. It is not suitable for socket mounting.

Function: The BGA conducts electrical signals between IC and PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards). Figure-1 depicts bottom view of the BGA.

Ball Grid Array Types

Following are the most popular Ball Grid Array types:
• PBGA-Plastic Ball Grid Array
• CPBGA-Cavity Plastic Ball Grid Array
• CBGA-Ceramic Ball Grid Array
• TBGA-Tape Ball Grid Array

PBGA-Plastic Ball Grid Array

PBGA-Plastic Ball Grid Array

The figure-2 depicts PBGA(Plastic Ball Grid Array). Following are the features or characteristics of PBGA.
• The device utilizes single or multilayer.
• The die encapsulated by transfer molding process.
• The die attached to substrate with silver filled epoxy and gold wire bonds for interconnect between die to package.

CPBGA-Cavity Plastic Ball Grid Array

CPBGA-Cavity Plastic Ball Grid Array

The figure-3 depicts CPBGA(Cavity Plastic Ball Grid Array). Following are the features of CPBGA.
• Designed to relatively low cost but high performance.
• The die attached with silver filled epoxy and gold wire for bonding chip to package.
• The cavity is used to protect die and wire bonds.

CBGA-Ceramic Ball Grid Array

CBGA-Ceramic Ball Grid Array

The figure-4 depicts CBGA(Ceramic Ball Grid Array). Following are the features of CBGA.
• Manufactured using ceramic cofire process.
• Tungsten traces are used for conductors.
• In order to provide high performance, it uses multiple power coupled with stripline signal layer.

TBGA-Tape Ball Grid Array

TBGA-Tape Ball Grid Array

The figure-5 depicts TBGA(Tape Ball Grid Array). Following are the features of TBGA.
• It is constructed using standard tape automated bonding materials.
• In order to have good rigidity, tape with tab inner lead bonding as well as stiffeners are added to the tape.
• To enhance shorten electrical path, two layer tape is used.

Ball Grid Array Advantages and Disadvantages

Following are the advantages of Ball Grid Array:
• It will not have problem with soldering process having high density packages as solder is applied to the package in right proportion.
• This package prevent chips from over-heating due to low thermal resistance between package and PCB because of discrete leads.
• BGA is used in security sensitive applications as it prevents direct physical access to the chip.
• It provides very short distance between PCB and package. Hence it offers low inductances and consecutively superior performance compare to leaded devices.

Following are the disadvantages of Ball Grid Array:
• The solder balls can not flex in the same way as longer leads can.
• After soldering, it is very difficult to look for faults, Moreover it requires expensive tools such as X-ray machines and specially developed microscopes to do it.

BGA Applications

Following are the applications of BGA:
• Microcontrollers and Microprocessors
• Electronics and Telecommunication devices
• RAM devices
• PC Chipsets

This article helps in understanding BGA basics and BGA types including advantages, disadvantages and applications.

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